1960년대 라우션버그와 로젠키스트의 ‘사회비판적’ 팝아트


Rauschenberg’s and Rosenquist’s Socially Engaged Pop Art in the 1960s

초록
네오다다와 팝아트의 주요 작가인 로버트 라우션버그와 제임스 로젠키스트는 1963년 케네디 대통령의 암살 이후 자신들의 실크 스크린과 회화에서 흑인문제, 베트남 전쟁 문제를 적극적으로 다루어 왔다. 라우션버그의 1963년 <시간역행 1>이나 로젠키스트의 가장 잘 알려진 <F-111>(1964-65)은 케네디가 주장하였던 이상주의적인 미국의 이미지가 몰락하고 미국 중산층의 경제적인 삶을 지탱하는 미국의 베트남 참전을 우회적으로 비판하고 있다. 이에 필자는 1960년대 미국 현대미술에 등장하는 사회비판적인 입장들을 주로 1960년대 말 예술가노동자연합이나 미니멀리즘, 개념미술로 이어지는 화랑과 미술관에 대한 기관 비평에 한정해 온 방식으로부터 벗어나고자 한다. 그리고 1963년 케네디 대통령 암살 이후 라우션버그가 포스터나 잡지를 통하여 발표하는 실크 스크린이나 로젠키스트의 회화 작업, 그리고 <평화타워>(1966)를 중점적으로 다루고자 한다. 이를 통하여 1960년대 사회비판적인 미국 현대미술의 발전에 있어서 간과되어져 온 네오다다와 팝아트 작가들의 역할에 주목하고자 한다.

 

Abstract
After John F. Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, Robert Rauschenberg, a renowned Neo-dada artist, and James Rosenquist, a pop artist, dealt with the controversial themes of racism and the Vietnam War in their silk screens and paintings. Rauschenberg’s Retroactive 1 in 1963 utilizes the images of current historical events to mark the end of Kennedy’s New Frontier idealism; Rosenquist’s F-111(1964-65) calls our attention to the fact that the peaceful everyday lives of the American middle class is economically inseparable from the Vietnam War during the 1960s. By examining arts of Rauschenberg and Rosenquist during the mid and late 1960s, as well as Peace Tower(1966), also called “Artist Tower of Protest,” this study moves away from the dominant approach toward socially engaged art in the US, which has focused on AWC(Art Workers Coalition) protest during the late 1960s and institutional critique against galleries and museums. This study, thus, pays special attention to the important roles that Neo-dada and Pop artists serve in the history of political activism and socially engaged art during the 1960s.

 

키워드
네오 다다, 팝아트 1960년대 미국 미술, 로버트 라우션버그, 제임스 로젠키스트, 평화타워, 사회비판적 미술, 

Keywords 
Neo Dada, Pop Art, American Art in the 1960s, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Peace Tower, Socially Critical Art. 

 

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Dong-Yeon Koh, "Rauschenberg’s and Rosenquist’s Socially Engaged Pop Art in the 1960s," The Korean Journal of American History , vol. 41, 2015.5, pp. 37-73. 

© 2018. Koh, Dong-Yeon
 

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